Skip to Content

Glossary of Terms

Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.

ALL A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
32 Glossary Terms Found.
ABRASION RESISTANCE
The property of a surface by which it resists being worn away as a result of friction.
ABRASIVE FINISH
A flat and non-reflective finish.
ABRASIVE HARDNESS
Refers to the wearing qualities of stone that is subjected to abrasion by foot traffic.
ABSORPTION
The process by which moisture or a liquid is taken into (soaked up by) another substance and held there.
ABUTMENT
The supporting wall or pier that receives the thrust of an arch; a solid stone springer at the lowest point of an arch, vault, or beam.
ACCELERATOR
A catalyst used to speed the setting of mortar, epoxy, and polyester resins.
ACID WASH
A chemical treatment applied to the face of a stone to achieve a distressed texture or finish that is distressed. Acid wash is more effective on calcareous stones than siliceous stones. Due to environmental and disposal concerns, chemical processes have been replaced by mechanical methods.
ACRYLIC EMULSIONS
Clear, water-based repellents that form a film. The acrylic resins come from the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acids, including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. Acrylics resins vary from hard brittle solids, to fibrous elastomeric structures to viscous liquids, depending on the monomer used and the method of polymerization.
ACRYLICS
Resins resulting from the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acids, including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. Acrylics can be carried in a water or solvent solution and are film-forming materials.
ACTIVE SOLIDS
Ingredients of a coating composition that are deposited following co-reaction or reaction with the substrate. Active solids are usually measured as a weight percent of the total.
ADHERED
Stone veneer secured and supported by adhesion of an approved bonding material over an approved backing.
ADOQUIN
A volcanic quartz-based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico and available in several colors.
AGATE
A variegated variety of quartz allowing colored bands or other markings (clouded, moss-like, etc.).
AGGLOMERATE
A man-made product fabricated to look like quarried stone. Usually composed of stone chips or fragments embedded in a matrix of mortar or thermosetting resins.
AGGREGATE
Materials that are added to mortar or grout at time of mixing to impart special properties to the mortar or grout; quantities of loose fragments of rock or mineral.
ALABASTER
A fine-grained, translucent variety of gypsum, generally white in color. May be cut and carved easily with a knife or saw. The term is often incorrectly applied to fine-grained marble.
ALTERATION
Any project involving the change of, or addition to an existing building.
ALUMINA
Aluminum oxide.
ALUMINUM STEARATE
Complex salt or soap of aluminum and stearic acid. Used as a flattening and anti-settling agent for pigments in paint and varnish, water repellents, and cement additives. Aluminum stearate binds solids in water.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Temperature of the surrounding environment.
ANHYDROUS
A hydrate that has given up all its previously-held water molecules.
ANORTHOSITE
An usually dark-colored igneous rock consisting mostly or entirely of calcic plagioclase.
ANTIQUE FINISH
A finish that replicates rusticated or distressed textures. Produced through mechanical or chemical means to simulate the naturally-occurring effects of the aging process.
APEX STONE
The top stone of a gable, spire, or pediment.
APRON
A trim piece under a projecting stone top.
ARAGONITE (CaCO3)
A translucent, white mineral found in calcium carbonate; a mineral with the same chemical formula of calcite, but the shape of the calcium carbonate crystals are different (orthorhombic). Aragonite can be found as a minority component of certain limestones and marbles. The most common forms of Aragonite are Nacre (Mother of Pearl) and Mexican Marble-Onyx.
ARCUATED CONSTRUCTION
Stone masonry in compression, using arch and vault.
ARGILLITE
A compact metamorphic rock composed mainly of clay or shale and aluminum silicate minerals, similar to slate in appearance and splitting properties, but usually much harder.
AROMATIC SOLVENTS
Hydrocarbon solvents comprised of organic compounds that contain an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms, including benzene, naphthalene, and their derivatives.
ARRIS
The angle, corner, or edge produced by the meeting of two surfaces; the edge of an external angle. A natural or applied line on the stone from which all the leveling and plumbing is measured.
ARTIFICIAL MARBLE
A man-made product that may look like natural quarried marble, sometimes composed of fillers and thermosetting resins as a matrix.
ARTIFICIAL STONE
A substitute for dimension stone made by casting selected aggregates and cement in molds.