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Glossary of Terms

Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.

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21 Glossary Terms Found.
BACK ARCH
A concealed arch carrying the back lug of a wall where the exterior facing is carried by a lintel.
BACK FILING
Rough masonry built behind a facing or between two faces; filling over the extrados of an arch. Brickwork in spaces between structural timbers, sometimes called brick nogging.
BACKING
The part of a veneer wall behind the exterior facing that is designed to resist load.
BACKING ROD
A flexible and compressible type of closed-cell foam polyethylene, butyl rubber, or open-cell and closed-cell polyurethane, rounded at the surface to contact sealant. It is installed at the bottom or rear of joint and is often described as a filler strip.
BANKER
A bench of timber or stone (may be a single block) on which stone is worked.
BASALT
A dense, textured (aphanitic), igneous rock relatively high in iron and magnesium minerals and relatively low in silica. Basalt is generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general term in contradistinction to felsite, a light colored feldspathic and highly siliceous rock of similar texture and origin. The colors of basalts are very dark green to black and often sold as granites, but unlike granites, basalt contains little or no quartz or feldspars.
BASE BLOCK
The squared block terminating a baseboard at the opening.
BASE COURSE
The lowest course or footing of a wall or pier.
BATTED
Stone surface finish produced with parallel tool marks.
BED
In granites and marbles, a layer or sheet of the rock mass that is horizontal, commonly curved and lenticular as developed by fractures. Sometimes applied also to the surface of parting between the sheets. Or, in stratified rocks, the unit layer formed by sedimentation of variable thickness and commonly tilted or distorted by subsequent deformation. A bed generally develops a rock cleavage, parting, or jointing along the planes of stratification.
BED JOINT
A horizontal joint between stones, usually filled with mortar, lead, or sealant.
BEDDING PLANE
Horizontal plane of sedimentary stone in the position of its original formation.
BELT COURSE
A continuous, horizontal course of flat stones, placed in line and marking a division in the wall plane. Sometimes called band course, string course, or sill course.
BENCH
Steps formed in quarry by removal of stone following bed joints, or a long seat of cubic stone.
BERM
A bank of earth, such as the piled-up earth against a stone wall.
BIOTITE
A black, brown, or dark-green mica, a magnesium iron silicate.
BLACK GRANITE
Dark colored igneous rocks defined by geologists as basalt, diabase, gabbro, diorite, and anorthosite, quarried as building stone, building facings, and specialty purposes and identified as Black Granite when sold.
BLEED
Staining caused by corrosive metals, oil-based putties, mastics, caulking, or sealing compounds.
BLENDS
Mixes of different generic raw materials to form a water repellent.
BLUESTONE
Regional sandstone quarried in the Catskill area of New York State and Western Pennsylvania.
BRECCIA
Clastic sedimentary stone made by fragment angular rocks (clasts) bonded together. It is divided in polygenetic breccia (when it is made by fragments of rocks with different mineralogy) or monogenetic breccia (when it is made by fragments of rocks of the same mineralogy). The matrix and bonding are generally clay, calcite, and silica.